Rachelle Hole


Canadian Institute for Inclusion and Citizenship (CIIC), Faculty of Health and Social Development, Social Work
Other Titles: UBCO Tier 1 Principal's Research Chair in Critical Disability Studies; Director, Canadian Institute for Inclusion and Citizenship; Social Inclusion and Equity Research Cluster Leader, Institute for Community Engaged Research Associated Health Researcher, The Collaborative RESearch Team to study psychosocial issues in Bipolar Disorder [CREST.BD]
Office: ARTS 368
Phone: 250-807-8741
Email: rachelle.hole@ubc.ca

Graduate student supervisor

Research Summary

Rachelle’s research programme is informed by two complementary streams: 1) a substantial focus on the socio-cultural practices that promote social inclusion and equity, and 2) a methodological focus on community based participatory research methods. Critical disability studies is central to the first stream informing Rachelle’s research in the area of community living and intellectual disability.


Rachelle is the co-director of the UBC Canadian Institute for Inclusion and Citizenship (CIIC), the first university based research centre in Canada with a dedicated focus on intellectual and developmental disability policy and practice.  The CIIC was established as a partnership between the University of British Columbia, government, and community living organizations and supporters seeking to further the inclusion and full citizenship of people with intellectual disabilities and their families, locally, nationally, and globally. More specifically, the CIIC was created to meet an identified need to conduct research to influence and inform policy and practice through learning, research, and knowledge exchange [visit – http://cic.arts.ubc.ca].

Rachelle is also a member of the UBC Institute for Community Engaged Research (ICER) and the leader of the social inclusion and equity research cluster [visit – http://icer.ok.ubc.ca]. She is also an associated health researcher of the Collaborative RESearch Team to study psychosocial issues in Bipolar Disorder (CREST.BD).



Rachelle’s doctoral degree was in interdisciplinary studies with a focus on critical disability studies. Drawing on feminist poststructural theories, Rachelle explored how three culturally Deaf women perceived the influence of hearing loss on their identities. This interest emerged from her 20 years of practice working with Deaf, hard of hearing an

Research Interests & Projects

  • The BC Transitioning Youth with Disabilities and Employment – “The TYDE Project” [$1,331,650; Co-Funded by the Canadian Institutes for Health Research and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council – Partnership Grant] April 2018 – March 2025. For more information visit https://mytyde.ca [Hole – Principal Investigator]
  • Impact 2.0: Evaluating summer employment interventions for youth with developmental disabilities. The Ministry of Social Development and Poverty Reduction ($142,000 – Mar 2023 – Dec. 2025) [Hole Principal Investigator in partnership with the BC Employment Network]
  • Evidence to Inform Policy and Practice in the Community Living Sector. Community Living British Columbia ($300,000) [Hole & Stainton Principal Investigators in partnership with CLBC]
  • Remote Supports to Enhance Independent Living. MITACS ($75,000)/CLBC ($99,000)/Vancouver Foundation ($40,000). [Hole Principal Investigator in partnership with Aspire, Community Living Society, Inclusion BC, Inclusion Langley, and Spectrum]
  • We Deserve to Work! Self advocates transforming attitudes about and experiences with employment. The Vancouver Foundation ($300,000 Sept. 2020 – Aug. 2023) [Hole and Schnellert Principal Investigators in partnership with the Community Living Society and Massey Theatre]
  • Advancing equal access for people with intellectual disabilities in the workplace. The Canadian Accessibility Standards Development Organization. ($129,150 – Oct. 2020 – Dec. 2023). [Hole and Stainton Principal Investigators]

Selected Publications & Presentations

Google Scholar

Journal Articles: (students are indicated by an asterisk)

Tidey, L., Schnellert, L., & Hole, R. (2022). “Everyone should get the chance to love”: Sexual health education and disability research-based theatre with self-advocates. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 31 (2), 198 – 206.

Schnellert, L., Tidey, L., & Hole, R.. (2022). Romance, relationships, and rights: Ethical considerations and dilemmas in a research-based theatre project with self-advocate co-creators and actors. Qualitative Inquiry. https://doi.org/10.1177/10778004221101586 [Impact factor 4.716]

Michalak, E.E., Barnes, S.J., Morton, E.E., O’Brien, H., Murray, G., Hole, R., & Meyer, D. (January 2022). Supporting self-management and quality of life in bipolar disorder with PolarUs app: Protocol for an explanatory mixed-methods study. JMIR Research Protocols. http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/36213

Hole, R. , Schnellert, L., & *Cantle, G. (2022). Sex: What’s the big deal? Exploring individuals’ with intellectual disabilities experiences with sex education. Qualitative Health Research. 32 (3), 453 – 464. https://doi.org/10.1177/10497323211057090

Schnellert, L., Tidey, L., & Hole, R. (Online July 2021). “You have the right to love and be loved”: Participatory theatre for disability justice with self-advocates. Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F14687941211034963

*Shannon, C., Olsen, L., Hole, R., and Rush, K. (May 2021). “There’s nothing here”: perspectives from rural parents promoting safe active recreation for children living with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2021.103998

Cook, S. & Hole, R. (2021). Trauma intellectual disabilities and multiple complex needs: A scoping review of the literature. Research in Developmental Disabilities. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2021.103939

Hole, R. & Stainton, T. ( 2020). Covid 19: The precarity of families & Disability. Child and Youth Services, 3. DOI: 10.1080/0145935X.2020.1834997

*Cook, S., & Hole, R. (May 2020). “Appropriately homeless and needy”: Examining street homeless survival through the lens of Bourdieusian social capital theory. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment. DOI: 10.1080/10911359.2020.1747585

*Battalova, A., Bulk, L., Nimmon, L., Hole, R., Krupa, T., Lee, M., Yael, M. & Jarus, T. (May 2020). “I can understand where they’re coming from.” How clinicians’s disability experiences shape their interaction with clients. Qualitative Health Research. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1049732320922193

Morton E, Hole R, Murray G, Buzwell S, Michalak E.E. (December 2019) “It’s Not Just a Bunch of Scores” – Experiences of a Web-Based Quality of Life Self-Monitoring Tool for Individuals with Bipolar Disorder: A qualitative exploration. JMIR Mental Health JMIR Preprints. 03/09/2019:16121 DOI: 10.2196/preprints.16121

*Jones, K.E., Ben-David, S. & Hole, R. (2019) Are individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities included in research? A review of the literature, Research and Practice in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, DOI: 10.1080/23297018.2019.1627571

Michalak, E., Morton, E., Barnes, S.J., Hole, R., CREST.BD, & Murray, G. (April 15, 2019) If You Build It, Will They Come? A Mixed-Methods Study of Knowledge Translation Strategies to Support Bipolar Disorder Self-Management. JMIR Ment Health, 6 (4):e13493. doi:10.2196/13493

*Michalak, E., Morton, E., Barnes, S.J., Hole, R., CREST.BD, & Murray, G. (2019) If You Build It, Will They Come? A Mixed-Methods Study of Knowledge Translation Strategies to Support Bipolar Disorder Self-Management. JMIR Ment Health. doi:10.2196/13493

*Baumbusch, J., Moody, E., Hole, R., Jokinen, N., & Stainton, T. (2019). Using healthcare services in the community: Perspectives of aging adults with intellectual disabilities and family members. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disability, 16 (1), 4 – 12. doi: 10.1111/jppi.12264

*Morton, E., Michalak, E., Hole, R., Buzwell, S., & Murphy, G. (2018). The ‘new normal’ – Relativity of quality of life judgments in individuals with bipolar disorder: A qualitative study. Quality of Life Research 27 (6), 1493-1500. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-018-1811-x

*Morton, E., Michalak, E., Hole, R., Buzwell, S., & Murphy, G. (2018). “Taking back the reins” – a qualitative study of the meaning and experience of self-management in bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 228, 160 – 165.

*Cornelissen, E., Mitton, C., Davidson, A., Reid, C., Hole, R., Visockas, A. & Smith, N. (June 2016). Fit for Purpose? Introducing a rational priority setting approach into a community care setting. Journal of Health Organization and Management 30 (4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JHOM-05-2013-0103 .

Rush, K., *Kjorven, M., & Hole, R. (2016). Older adults’ discursive practices that shape and discipline post-hospitalization risk. The Gerontologist 56 (3), 494-503. doi:10.1093/geront/gnu092.

Michalak, E., Jones, S., Lobban, F., Perez Algorta, G., Barnes, S., Berk, L., Berk, M., Hole, R., Lapsley, S., Maxwell, V., Milev, R., McManamy, J., Murray, G., Tohen, M.,  Tse, S., Sanchez de Carmona, M., Johnson, S.L., the ISBD Taskforce on Community Engagement & CREST.BD. (2016). Harnessing the potential for community-based participatory research approaches in bipolar disorder. International Journal of Bipolar Disorders, 4 (1). doi: 10.1186/s40345-016-0045-5

Johnson, S.L., *Moezpoor, M., Murray, G., Hole, R., Barnes, S.J., CREST.BD and Michalak, E.E. (2016). Creativity and bipolar disorder: Igniting a dialog. Qualitative Health Research, 26(1), 32 – 40. doi:1177/1049732315578403

Hole, R., Robinson, C., Stainton, T., Lige, S., & Crawford, C. ( 2015). Home sharing and people with intellectual disability: Tips from the experts! A qualitative exploration Journal of Policy & Practice in Intellectual Disability, 12 (4), 270 – 287.

*Romyn, A., Rush, K., & Hole, R. (2015). Vascular Access Transition: Experiences of patients on Hemodialysis. Nephrology Nursing Journal, 42 (5), 445 -453.

Michalak, E.E., Lane, K., Hole, R., Barnes, S.J., Khatri, N., Lapsley, S., Maxwell, V., Milev, R., Parikh, S.V., Berk, L., Berk, M., Tse, S., Murray, G., Algorta, G.P., Lobban, F., Jones, S., & Johnson, S.L. (2015). Towards a better future for Canadians with bipolar disorder: Principles and implementation of a community-based participatory research model. Engaged Scholar Journal: Community-Engaged Research, Teaching and Learning, 1(1), 132 – 147.

Hole, R., Evans, M., Berg, L.D., Bottorff, J.L., *Dingwall, C., *Alexis, C., & Smith, M. (2015). Visibility and voice: Aboriginal people’s experiences of culturally safe and unsafe healthcare. Qualitative Health Research, 25 (12), 1662 – 1674. DOI: 10.1177/1049732314566325

*Cornelissen, E., Mitton, C., Davidson, A., Reid, C., Hole, R., Visockas, A., & Smith, N. (2014). Determining and broadening the definition of impact from implementing a rational priority setting approach in a healthcare organization. Social Science & Medicine, 114, 1 – 9. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.05.027

*Cornelissen, E., Mitton, C., Davidson, A., Reid, C., Hole, R., Visockas, A., & Smith, N. (2014). Changing priority setting practice: The role of implementation in practice change. Health Policy, 117, 266 – 274. doi:10.1016/j.healthpol.2014.04.010

Michalak, E., Livingston, J.D., Maxwell, V., Hole, R., *Hawke, L., Parikh, S. (2014). Using theatre to address mental illness stigma: A knowledge translation study in bipolar disorder. International Journal of Bipolar Disorder2 (1). doi:10.1186/2194-7511-2-1

*Wallace, B., MacEntee, M.I., Harrison, R., Hole, R., & Mitton, C. (2013). Community Dental Clinics: Providers persepctives. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 41 (3), 193 – 203.DOI: 10.1111/cdoe.12012

Hole, R., Stainton, T., & Wilson, L. (2013). Ageing adults with intellectual disabilities: Future hopes and concerns of self-advocates and family member experiences. Australian Social Work, 66 (4), 571 – 589.

Michalak, E., Hole, R., Livingston, J., Parikh, S., McBride, S., Lapsley, S., Murray, G & the CREST. BD team. (2012). Improving care and wellness in bipolar disorder: Origins, evolution and future directions of a collaborative knowledge exchange network. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 6 (16), 1 – 12. doi:10.1186/1752-4458-6-16. Impact factor 1.06

Pesut, B., McLeod, B., Hole, R., & Dalhuisen, M. (2012). Rural nursing and quality end of life care: Palliative care…palliative approach…or somewhere in between. Advances in Nursing Science, 35 (4), 288 – 304. DOI: 10.1097/ANS.0b013e31826b8687.

Michalak, E., Hole, R., *Holmes, C., Velyvis, V., Pesut, B., Austin, J. & Crest BD. (2012). Implications for psychiatric care of the word ‘recovery’ in people with bipolar disorder. Psychiatric Annals, 42 (5), 173 – 178. DOI:10.1080/0312407X.2012.689307

Suto, M., Livingston, J., Hole, R., *Lapsley, S., Hinshaw, S., *Hale, S., & Michalak, E. (2012). Stigma shrinks my bubble: A qualitative study of understandings and experiences of stigma and bipolar disorder. Stigma Research and Action, 2 (2), 85 – 92.

*Kjorven, M., Rush, K., & Hole, R. (2011). A discursive exploration of the practices that shape and discipline nurses’ response to postoperative delirium. Nursing Inquiry, 18 (4), 325 – 335.

Michalak, E., Livingston, J., Hole, R., Suto, M., Hale, S., & Haddock, C. (2011). “It’s something that I manage but it is not who I am”: Reflections on internalized stigma in high functioning individuals with bipolar disorder. Chronic Illness, 7 (3), 209-224. DOI:1177/1742395310395959

Stainton, T., *Brown, J., Crawford, C., Hole, R., & Charles, G. (2011). Comparison of community based residential supports on measures of Information & Planning; Access & Delivery of Supports; Choice & Control; Satisfaction; and, Overall Perception of Outcomes. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 55 (8), 732-745. Special Issue on Supported Living/Accommodation. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2010.01378.x

Murray, G., Suto, M., Hole, R., *Hale, S., Amari, E., & E. Michalak. (2011). Self-management strategies used by ‘high functioning’ individuals with bipolar disorder: From research to clinical practice. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 18 (2), 95-109

Evans, M., Hole, R., Berg, L., Hutchinson, P., & Sookraj, D. (2009). “Common Insights, Differing Methodologies: Towards a Fusion of Indigenous Methodologies, Participatory Action Research, and White Studies in an Urban Aboriginal Research Agenda”. Qualitative Inquiry, 15 (5), 893-910.

Hole, R. (2007). “Narratives of Identity: A Poststructural Analysis of Three Deaf Women’s Life Stories”. Narrative Inquiry, 17 (2), 259 – 278.

Hole, R. (2007). “Working between languages and cultures: Issues of representation, voice, and authority intensified”. Qualitative Inquiry, 13 (5), 696-710.

DVDs produced/online streaming videos:

Romance, Relationships and Rights: A Community Creation (July 2019). Produced by L. Schnellert, J.A. Nelson, and R. Hole. ISBN: 978-1-988804-22-4 Dr. Hole  was the Principal Investigator on the Vancouver Foundation funded Participatory Theatre Research Project. Videographers: “See Together Media”. Hole led the qualitative research and co-led the evaluation of the performances.

This production, a community creation, confronted misconceptions about adults with intellectual disabilities and challenged audiences (knowledge users and policy makers) to think differently about how we value, respect, and support self-advocates’ rights to romance and relationships.

Book Chapters:

Hole, R. (2014). Qualitative Health ResearchIn K. Bassil and D. Zabkiewicz (Eds.) Health Research Methods: A Canadian Perspective (pp. 165 – 190). Oxford University Press.

*Lapsley, S.E., Velyvis, V., Ivanova, A., Hole, R. & Michalak, E.E. (2013). Understanding Lived Experience and Personal Recovery in People with Bipolar Disorder: A Qualitative Literature Review. In N.B. Moore (Ed.), Bipolar Disorder: Symptoms, Management, & Risk Factors. Nova Publishers: NY https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=41160

Hole, R., Stainton, T., & Wilson, L. (2010). “Supporting Aging Adults with Intellectual Disabilities” In V.Prasher (Ed.) Contemporary issues in Intellectual disabilities. Nova Science Publishers. New York.

Selected of Reports:

Hole, R., Stainton, T., Lawrason, S., Sterling-Bur, S.  Metcalfe, R., Sterling-Collins, R. Young, R. & Baumbusch, J. (Dec. 2019). Comprehensive Literature Review: Respite Services and Supports. The UBC Canadian Institute for Inclusion and Citizenship. 51 pates.

Stainton, T., Hole, R., Sterling-Bur, S. Lawrason, S., Metcalfe, R., Sterling-Collins, R. Young, R. & Baumbusch, J. (Dec. 2019). Review of Respite Supports and Services: Knowledge Synthesis and Policy Options Paper. The UBC Canadian Institute for Inclusion and Citizenship. 33 pages.

Hole, R., Stainton, T., , Baumbusch, J., Lawrason, S., & Sterling-Bur, S. (Oct. 2019). Inclusive Child Care in Universal Child Care Settings: A review of the literature and jurisdictional scan. The UBC Canadian Institute for Inclusion and Citizenship. Commissioned research report by the BC Ministry of Children and Family Development. 147 pages.

Stainton, T., Hole, R., Crawford, C. (November 2016). Ready Willing and Able: A 2nd formative interim report. The Canadian Association for Community Living and the Canadian Autism Spectrum Disorder Alliance, 89 pages.

Hole, R., Stainton, T., *de Volder, B., & MacDonald, S. (January, 2016). An exploratory analysis of WorkBC: How is it working for people with disabilities? The Centre for Inclusion and Citizenship.

Hole, R., Stainton, T., & *Rosal, A. (August 2015). “Living a Good Life” – Quality of Life and Home Share. The Community Living British Columbia, 38 pages.

Hole, R., Corbett, J., *Cook, S., & de Raaf, S. (May 2015). Mapping inclusive employment practices for individuals with developmental disabilities: A participatory research mapping project.The Ministry of Social Development and Social Innovation, The Province of British Columbia, 37 pages.

Evans, M., Hole, R., & Stainton, T. (March 2014). Giving in Action Program Evaluation: Towards a full cost/full benefits assessment of a targeted funding program supporting in-home continuity for families with persons with special needs and/or developmental disabilities. Vancouver Foundation, 19 pages.

Hole, R., *Nunn, N., *DeVolder, B., & Berg, L. (March 2012). Western Canada Case Study Research Project – Supports and Accommodations for Disabled People with Intermittent Work Capacity in Two Organizations in the Okanagan Valley. Human Resource & Skill Development Canada, Office of Disability Issues, May 2012. 63 Pages.

Hole, R., Stainton, T., & *Tomlinson, J. (2011). Social and economic outcomes: Are supported employment services for individuals with developmental disabilities a good investment? The Community Living Research Project, The Centre for Inclusion and Citizenship, University of British Columbia, and Community Living British Columbia, Province of British Columbia, May 2011. 23 pages.

Selected Grants & Awards

2019 UBC Okanagan Health Researcher of the Year


Meet Your Professor: Rachelle Hole (youtube.com)


Apologies, but no results were found.